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钢轨波磨研究进展

朱海燕 袁遥 肖乾 黎洁 郑宇轩

朱海燕, 袁遥, 肖乾, 黎洁, 郑宇轩. 钢轨波磨研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(3): 110-133. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.006
引用本文: 朱海燕, 袁遥, 肖乾, 黎洁, 郑宇轩. 钢轨波磨研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(3): 110-133. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.006
ZHU Hai-yan, YUAN Yao, XIAO Qian, LI Jie, ZHENG Yu-xuan. Research progress on rail corrugation[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(3): 110-133. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.006
Citation: ZHU Hai-yan, YUAN Yao, XIAO Qian, LI Jie, ZHENG Yu-xuan. Research progress on rail corrugation[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(3): 110-133. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.006

钢轨波磨研究进展

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.006
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 51665015

江西省自然科学基金项目 20202ACBL204008

牵引动力国家重点实验室开放课题 TPL2007

江西省教育厅科学技术研究项目 GJJ190308

江西省教育厅科学技术研究项目 GJJ190333

江西省教育厅科学技术研究项目 GJJ200614

详细信息
    作者简介:

    朱海燕(1975-),男,江西新干人,华东交通大学副教授,工学博士,从事车辆系统动力学与疲劳强度研究

  • 中图分类号: U211.5

Research progress on rail corrugation

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51665015

Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province 20202ACBL204008

Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Traction Power TPL2007

Science and Technology Research Project of Jiangxi Education Department GJJ190308

Science and Technology Research Project of Jiangxi Education Department GJJ190333

Science and Technology Research Project of Jiangxi Education Department GJJ200614

More Information
  • 摘要: 为了解轨道车辆运营中普遍存在的钢轨波磨问题,分析了钢轨波磨的形成机理,阐述了钢轨波磨对车辆-轨道系统动力学性能的影响,综述了常见的钢轨波磨检测、监测与抑制方法,并展望了钢轨波磨的研究方向。研究结果表明:车辆-轨道系统耦合振动、轮轨反馈振动、轮轨自激振动和轮轨接触振动是形成钢轨波磨的主因,车辆-轨道结构、线路运营条件、轮轨材料、钢轨型面和车轮踏面轮廓等多方面因素相互耦合作用亦会引起钢轨波磨;重载、高速铁路和地铁钢轨波磨会影响车辆-轨道系统动力学性能和车辆与轨道零部件寿命,也会影响扣件、钢轨、轨枕、轨道板(道砟)和轴箱等零部件的振动特性,各零部件的阻尼、刚度等物理参数与运行条件不匹配时也会造成钢轨波磨,列车长时间运行在钢轨波磨路段时会导致车辆-轨道结构产生强烈共振,造成严重疲劳损伤,影响行车安全;检测与监测是研究和发现钢轨波磨的重要辅助手段,抑制钢轨波磨主要通过改善轮轨接触关系、钢轨打磨、提高钢轨表面材料硬度、添加相关摩擦调节剂和轮轨润滑剂、使用钢轨吸振器技术、优化轮轨系统结构以及调整列车运营规定等措施来实现;目前,钢轨打磨仍是消除和减轻钢轨波磨最直接、最有效和最经济的措施,应提升并改善钢轨打磨技术。

     

  • 图  1  高速铁路线路钢轨波磨

    Figure  1.  Rail corrugation in high-speed railway line

    图  2  钢轨波磨基本反馈机制

    Figure  2.  Basic feedback mechanism of rail corrugation

    图  3  单轮对曲线通过轮轨接触示意

    Figure  3.  Schematic of single wheelset curve through wheel-rail contact

    图  4  蠕滑力特性曲线

    Figure  4.  Creep force characteristic curve

    图  5  各阶固有频率

    Figure  5.  Natural frequencies of each order

    图  6  不同速度下加速度仿真峰值、波长与波幅之间关系

    Figure  6.  Relationships among simulated peak acceleration, wavelength and amplitude under different speeds

    图  7  不同速度下主频率、波长和波幅之间关系

    Figure  7.  Relationships among dominant frequency, wavelength and amplitude under different speeds

    图  8  不同速度工况下钢轨波磨波长与振动频率关系

    Figure  8.  Relationships between wavelength and vibration frequency of rail corrugation under different speeds

    图  9  钢轨打磨前后轨道零部件振动加速度均方根变化

    Figure  9.  Root mean square variations of vibration accelerations of rail components before and after rail grinding

    图  10  轨道结构对列车振动加速度有效值的影响

    Figure  10.  Influence of track structure on effective value of train vibration acceleration

    图  11  不同速度特征频率统计

    Figure  11.  Statistics of characteristic frequencies of different speeds

    图  12  各测点随打磨次数的角度变化

    Figure  12.  Angle variations for each measuring point with number of grinding

    图  13  钢轨裂纹和波磨扩展机制

    Figure  13.  Propagation mechanisms of rail crack and corrugation

    图  14  钢轨波磨现象应对策略

    Figure  14.  Coping strategies for rail corrugation phenomenon

    表  1  按固定波长机理和损伤机理分类钢轨波磨

    Table  1.   Classifications of rail corrugations according to fixed wavelength mechanism and damage mechanism

    类型 固定波长机理 损伤机理 发生地点 频率/Hz
    响轨 Pinned-Pinned共振 磨耗 直线、曲线、高轨 400~1200
    车辙 驱动轮对二阶扭转共振 磨耗 曲线 250~400
    P2力共振 P2力共振 磨耗 直线、曲线高轨 50~100
    重载 P2力共振 波谷塑性流动 直线、曲线 50~100
    轻轨 P2力共振 塑性弯曲 直线、曲线 50~100
    轨道形式 轨道共振 磨耗 直线、曲线
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  钢轨波磨成因理论分类

    Table  2.   Theoretical classification of rail corrugation causes

    波磨成因理论 分类
    动力类 轮轨接触共振理论(共振、反馈)
    轮轨垂向共振理论(共振、反馈)
    轮对振动 轮对横向振动理论(共振、自激)
    轮对弯曲振动理论(自激、反馈)
    轮对扭转振动理论(自激、反馈)
    磨耗功波动理论(自激、反馈、共振)
    声波效应理论(共振)
    非动力类 钢轨冶金性能理论
    残余应力理论
    不均匀磨损及锈蚀理论
    不均匀塑流理论接触疲劳理论
    应力极限理论
    轮轨廓形匹配理论
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  钢轨波磨的影响因素和抑制措施

    Table  3.   Influencing factors and suppression measures of rail corrugation

    线路条件 曲线半径 轨道阻尼 轨道刚度 外轨超高
    车辆结构 轮对轴刚度 一系悬挂 轮缘摩擦系数 轴重
    其他影响 轮轨接触面特性 运营条件
    抑制措施 减小轨道 不平顺加大轨道弹性,提高轨道阻尼 适当降低曲线外轨超高
    钢轨倒换 钢轨打磨 提高钢轨材质强度及耐磨性
    增大轮对轴刚度 增大一系悬挂阻尼 适当控制涂油润滑
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-27
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-27

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