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美兰法与美兰拱桥技术发展综述

陈宝春 何福云 李聪 刘君平 ŠAVOR Zlatko 牟廷敏 陈康明 姚海冬 张梦娇

陈宝春, 何福云, 李聪, 刘君平, ŠAVOR Zlatko, 牟廷敏, 陈康明, 姚海冬, 张梦娇. 美兰法与美兰拱桥技术发展综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2022, 22(6): 1-24. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2022.06.001
引用本文: 陈宝春, 何福云, 李聪, 刘君平, ŠAVOR Zlatko, 牟廷敏, 陈康明, 姚海冬, 张梦娇. 美兰法与美兰拱桥技术发展综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2022, 22(6): 1-24. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2022.06.001
CHEN Bao-chun, HE Fu-yun, LI Cong, LIU Jun-ping, ŠAVOR Zlatko, MU Ting-min, CHEN Kang-ming, YAO Hai-dong, ZHANG Meng-jiao. Review on technical development of Melan method and Melan arch bridges[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2022, 22(6): 1-24. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2022.06.001
Citation: CHEN Bao-chun, HE Fu-yun, LI Cong, LIU Jun-ping, ŠAVOR Zlatko, MU Ting-min, CHEN Kang-ming, YAO Hai-dong, ZHANG Meng-jiao. Review on technical development of Melan method and Melan arch bridges[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2022, 22(6): 1-24. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2022.06.001

美兰法与美兰拱桥技术发展综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2022.06.001
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2018YFC07054000

国家自然科学基金项目 52078136

广西自然科学基金项目 2021GXNSFBA220006

桂博新计划项目 T3030097963

详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈宝春(1958-),男,福建罗源人,福州大学教授,工学博士,从事拱桥、无伸缩缝桥梁与UHPC桥梁研究

  • 中图分类号: U448.22

Review on technical development of Melan method and Melan arch bridges

Funds: 

National Key Research and Development Program of China 2018YFC07054000

National Natural Science Foundation of China 52078136

Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi 2021GXNSFBA220006

Guibo New Plan Project T3030097963

More Information
  • 摘要:

    回顾了美兰法100多年的发展历程,讨论了相关专业术语及其内涵与外延;调查分析了美兰拱桥在中国的应用现状,总结了美兰法的技术发展要点和历史经验;指出了美兰法技术与美兰拱结构的研究现状与发展方向。研究结果表明:美兰法在19世纪末和20世纪上半叶从欧美起源,20世纪下半叶传到中国和日本;按所采用的埋置拱架类型,其在中国的发展可分为半劲性拱架、(一般)钢管混凝土(CFST)拱架和强劲CFST拱架3个阶段;美兰拱桥为混凝土拱桥的一种,美兰法所用的埋置拱架以服务施工为主,成桥后对混凝土的增强作用为辅;截至2021年5月,收集到的中国已建成或在建的美兰拱桥有57座,2007年以来,跨径250 m以上的混凝土拱桥均采用此法修建,其中最大跨径为600 m;美兰拱桥主要应用在中国西南山区的公路桥梁中,近年在铁路桥中的应用增多,以上承式双肋组拼拱为主,矢跨比集中在1/4~1/6,拱轴线多采用悬链线;CFST拱架截面积在主拱截面中的占比、钢管直径、钢管和混凝土材料强度均随时间的推移和跨径的增大而不断提高;应用美兰法时要综合考虑有限的用钢量、受控的结构受力和简便的施工这3种因素;预埋拱架从最早的型钢向类桁式、箱式、桁式发展,目前以桁式为主,桁式钢管拱架多采用悬臂法架设,转体法也有应用且形式多样;为减少用钢量,并控制施工过程中结构的受力与变形,中国创新地引入了CFST桁式结构作为埋置拱架,并采用预压、辅助锚索、多点平衡浇筑、斜拉索等调载方法;近年来,通过采用强劲CFST拱架,外包混凝土横向分环浇筑工序减少至3环及以下;在美兰法应用方面,应以强劲CFST拱架为核心,继续开展材料、结构与施工技术方面的研究;在美兰拱结构方面,应加强钢管增强混凝土结构、超高性能材料、钢腹板(杆)-混凝土组合拱受力性能研究;同时,还应深入研究美兰拱桥的耐久性,从而为新建桥梁的设计和既有桥梁的维修养护服务。

     

  • 图  1  中国美兰拱桥的累计数量与跨径

    Figure  1.  Cumulative number and spans of Melan arch bridges in China

    图  2  美兰拱桥在各行业的应用趋势

    Figure  2.  Application trends of Melan arch bridges in various industries

    图  3  美兰拱桥在中国的地区分布

    Figure  3.  Regional distribution of Melan arch bridges in China

    图  4  车承形式随时间变化趋势

    Figure  4.  Variation trends of vehicle bearing forms with time

    图  5  矢跨比应用数量

    Figure  5.  Application number of rise-span ratio

    图  6  拱轴系数与跨径关系

    Figure  6.  Relationship between arch axis coefficient and span

    图  7  CFST美兰拱桥钢管强度变化

    Figure  7.  Changes on steel tube strength of CFST Melan arch bridges

    图  8  管内和外包混凝土的强度变化

    Figure  8.  Changes on concrete strengths in and out of steel tube

    图  9  美兰拱桥截面高度与跨径关系

    Figure  9.  Relationships between section depth and span of Melan arch bridges

    图  10  CFST美兰拱桥钢管直径、CFST面积率与跨径关系

    Figure  10.  Relationships between steel tube diameter, CFST area ratio and span of CFST Melan arch bridges

    图  11  CFST拱架中弦管径厚比

    Figure  11.  Ratios of chord diameter to thickness in CFST arch frameworks

    图  12  日本旭日桥外包混凝土施工照片

    Figure  12.  Construction picture of encased concrete in Xuri Bridge in Japan

    图  13  德国Echelsbacher桥钢拱架架设示意

    Figure  13.  Schematic of steel arch framework erection in Echelsbacher Bridge in Germany

    图  14  Echelsbacher大桥装有砾石的埋置拱架横截面

    Figure  14.  Cross section of embedded arch framework with gravels in Echelsbacher Bridge

    图  15  Martín Gil桥拱肋截面混凝土分环浇筑示意

    Figure  15.  Schematic of concreting ring numbers of arch rib section in Martín Gil Bridge

    图  16  美兰拱桥中浇筑混凝土分环分段数与跨径关系

    Figure  16.  Relationships between span and concreting segment number in ring and along arch for Melan arch bridges

    图  17  美国2座美兰拱桥锈蚀照片

    Figure  17.  Corrosion pictures of two Melan arch bridges in USA

    图  18  Echelsbacher桥病害照片

    Figure  18.  Disease pictures of Echelsbacher Bridge

    表  1  中国大跨径美兰拱桥

    Table  1.   Long-span Melan arch bridges in China

    序号 桥名 建成时间 跨径/m 拱架类型
    1 辽宁丹东沙河口大桥 1985 156 半劲性拱架
    2 四川宜宾小南门桥 1990 240 半劲性拱架
    3 广西邕宁邕江大桥 1996 312 一般CFST拱架
    4 重庆万县长江大桥 1997 420 一般CFST拱架
    5 贵州沪昆高铁北盘江大桥 2016 445 一般CFST拱架
    6 四川新市西宁河大桥 在建 510 强劲CFST拱架
    7 广西天峨龙滩特大桥 在建 600 强劲CFST拱架
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  CFST美兰拱桥混凝土强度等级

    Table  2.   Concrete strength grades of CFST Melan arch bridges

    强度等级 C30 C40 C45 C50 C55 C60 C80 C100 C120 合计
    管内 数量/座 1 11 1 13 3 11 6 3 1 50
    比例/% 2.0 22.0 2.0 26.0 6.0 22.0 12.0 6.0 2.0 100.0
    外包 数量/座 2 9 1 14 8 5 39
    比例/% 5.1 23.1 2.6 35.9 20.5 12.8 100.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  CFST美兰拱桥截面形式统计

    Table  3.   Section form statistics of CFST Melan arch bridges

    类别 肋拱 箱板拱
    箱肋 工字肋
    单室 双室 双室 三室 四室
    数量/座 29 8 1 1 10 1
    比例/% 58 16 2 2 20 2
    合计/% 74 2 24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  外包混凝土浇筑分环数

    Table  4.   Ring numbers for encased concrete pouring

    阶段 横向分环数 ≤3 4 5 6 ≥7 合计
    第2阶段 数量/座 10 13 1 1 25
    比例/% 40.0 52.0 4.0 4.0 100
    第3阶段 数量/座 18 4 1 23
    比例/% 78.3 17.4 4.3 100.0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  强劲CFST埋置拱架美兰拱桥混凝土浇筑方案

    Table  5.   Schemes of concreting in Melan arch bridges with strong CFST embedded arch formwork

    序号 桥名 跨径/m 建成年份 横向分环数 纵向分段数
    1 四川嘉陵江大桥 364 2012 3 16
    2 四川泸州磨刀溪大桥 266 2015 2 16
    3 四川布拖金沙江大桥 260 2018 2 12
    4 四川官盛渠江特大桥 300 2019 2 8
    5 四川金阳金沙江大桥 280 2019 2 12
    6 四川新市西宁河大桥 510 在建 3 12
    7 广西天峨龙滩特大桥 600 在建 3 4
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2022-05-23
  • 网络出版日期:  2023-01-10
  • 刊出日期:  2022-12-25

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