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基于阻燃抑烟的纳米黏土改性沥青综述

杨小龙 申爱琴 蒋宜馨 吴寒松 王广琛

杨小龙, 申爱琴, 蒋宜馨, 吴寒松, 王广琛. 基于阻燃抑烟的纳米黏土改性沥青综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(5): 42-61. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.05.004
引用本文: 杨小龙, 申爱琴, 蒋宜馨, 吴寒松, 王广琛. 基于阻燃抑烟的纳米黏土改性沥青综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(5): 42-61. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.05.004
YANG Xiao-long, SHEN Ai-qin, JIANG Yi-xin, WU Han-song, WANG Guang-chen. Review on nano clay modified asphalt based on flame retardant and smoke suppression[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(5): 42-61. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.05.004
Citation: YANG Xiao-long, SHEN Ai-qin, JIANG Yi-xin, WU Han-song, WANG Guang-chen. Review on nano clay modified asphalt based on flame retardant and smoke suppression[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(5): 42-61. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.05.004

基于阻燃抑烟的纳米黏土改性沥青综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.05.004
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 5207850

陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目 2020JZ-22

吉林省交通运输科技项目 2018-1-8

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨小龙(1989-),男,甘肃省定西人,广西大学讲师,工学博士,从事路基路面工程研究

    通讯作者:

    申爱琴(1957-),女,陕西凤县人,长安大学教授,工学博士

  • 中图分类号: U414

Review on nano clay modified asphalt based on flame retardant and smoke suppression

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 5207850

Natural Science Basic Research Program of Shaanxi Province 2020JZ-22

Science and Technology Projects of Transportation Department of Jilin Province 2018-1-8

More Information
  • 摘要: 分析了沥青材料的热解燃烧特性,总结了沥青材料阻燃抑烟性能测试方法,归纳了国内外常用的沥青阻燃剂类型及其优缺点;论述了隧道沥青材料常用的阻燃技术,评析了纳米改性沥青阻燃抑烟机理;探讨了纳米黏土对沥青材料高低温性能、水稳定性及老化性能等路用性能的影响,展望了未来隧道阻燃抑烟沥青材料的研究方向。研究结果表明: 用于隧道沥青材料阻燃剂应具有良好的协同阻燃抑烟效应,而金属氢氧化物和纳米材料具有较大的应用潜力;沥青材料的阻燃抑烟性能测试主要参考聚合物阻燃测试方法,这些试验方法与沥青路面真实燃烧状态明显不符,亟需补充和完善沥青材料阻燃抑烟性能测试方法和标准;以纳米黏土为代表的纳米改性材料对热沥青的烟气释放具有显著的抑制作用,但目前研究主要集中于纳米材料和聚合物复合材料的阻燃机理方面,针对纳米改性沥青的阻燃抑烟机理缺乏系统性研究;纳米黏土可显著改善沥青的高温、水稳及老化性能,对低温性能的影响方面,国内外研究存在较大争议;应将热拌沥青混合料烟气控制技术、金属氢氧化物和纳米黏土协同阻燃技术及沥青材料阻燃性能测试方法等方面作为隧道阻燃抑烟沥青材料未来的重点研究方向。

     

  • 图  1  沥青材料的燃烧过程

    Figure  1.  Combustion process of asphalt materials

    图  2  沥青材料阻燃抑烟性能测试方法

    Figure  2.  Test methods for flame retardant and smoke suppression of asphalt materials

    图  3  多孔沥青混合料燃烧机理

    Figure  3.  Combustion mechanism of porous asphalt mixture

    图  4  沥青阻燃材料研究进展

    Figure  4.  Research progress of asphalt flame retardant materials

    图  5  阻燃剂市场份额

    Figure  5.  Market shares of flame retardants

    图  6  纳米改性沥青热解燃烧机理

    Figure  6.  Pyrolysis combustion mechanism of nano modified asphalt

    图  7  纳米黏土对沥青高温性能的影响

    Figure  7.  Effects of nano-clay on high temperature performance of asphalt

    图  8  OMMT改性沥青抗老化机理

    Figure  8.  Anti-aging mechanism of OMMT modified asphalt

    表  1  沥青阻燃抑烟性能测试方法

    Table  1.   Test methods of flame retardant and smoke suppression performance of asphalt

    测试方法 参考标准 评价指标及标准 优点 缺点
    LOI GB/T 2406—2009 小于21%:易燃材料 测试方便,操作简单 由于沥青的高温流体状体,测
    试时可操作性差;属于小型燃
    烧试验,非真实火灾情况下材
    料的易燃性,测试精度不高
    21%~27%:可燃材料
    大于27%:自熄材料
    水平垂直燃烧
    UL 94
    GB/T 2408—2008 V-0:高阻燃等级
    V-1:低阻燃等级
    V-2:最低阻燃等级
    锥形量热仪 GB/T 16172—2007 燃烧热释率,点燃时间,燃烧失重,
    生烟速率以及CO、CO2浓度等参数
    接近真实火灾状态下沥青
    材料燃烧特性,测试精度高
    价格昂贵
    烟密度 GB 8624—1997 烟密度等级小于等于75 操作简单,测试方便 精度不高,变异性较大
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  沥青材料阻燃剂

    Table  2.   Flame retardants of asphalt materials

    名称 化合物名称 反应的状态 优点 缺点
    有机类 有机卤系 溴系和氯系阻燃剂 固相 掺量少,阻燃效能高;阻燃剂在
    燃烧过程中发烟量大,易产生
    有毒气体
    阻燃效率高,对材料的物理机械性能
    影响小;缺点是发烟量大、具有一定
    毒性,易于水解和热稳定性较差等
    磷系 红磷、磷酸二氢铵、磷酸氢二铵、
    磷酸铵、聚硫酸铵等
    无机
    金属类
    锑(Sb) 氧化锑 气相 热稳定性好,不产生腐蚀性气体,
    阻燃性能持久;其本身存在毒性
    单独使用阻燃效能较差,
    且锑资源有限
    硼(B) 硼酸锌 液相、固相 热稳定性好,毒性低,消烟 与沥青的相容性较差,一般用作
    其他阻燃剂的增效剂
    铝(Al) 氢氧化铝、三氧化二铝 固相、气相 具有阻燃、填充和抑烟三重功能,
    资源丰富,价格低廉
    其添加量较大,影响沥青的物理力学
    性能,与材料的兼容性差
    镁(Mg) 氢氧化镁 固相、气相
    钙(Ca) 氢氧化钙 固相、气相
    无机纳米
    阻燃剂
    纳米材料 蒙脱土、累托石、蛭石、
    膨胀石墨等
    固相 资源丰富、制备简单,可提高
    沥青材料各项物理力学性能
    阻燃效果一般,存在一定的
    技术问题
    纳米纤维
    阻燃剂
    碳纳米管、海泡石、
    石墨烯等
    固相 可显著改善沥青材料的各项
    物理力学性能
    但其阻燃效果不佳,需与其他
    阻燃剂复配使用
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  OMMT化学成分质量百分数

    Table  3.   Chemical components mass percents of OMMT  %

    化学组成 文献[100] 文献[101] 文献[102] 文献[103]
    黏土A 黏土B 有机蒙脱土 有机蒙脱土 黏土A 黏土B 黏土C
    SiO2 67.60 67.70 60.40 68.71 42.990 0 49.150 0 51.170 0
    Al2O3 22.40 23.30 17.91 24.02 8.394 0 8.715 0 9.512 0
    Fe2O3 6.30 3.78 1.34 0.67 0.518 9 0.487 5 0.507 8
    MgO 2.17 3.03 5.04 0.59 2.174 0 2.089 0 2.152 0
    TiO2 0.20 0.48 0.11 2.18 0.043 0 0.043 5 0.050 3
    CaO 0.19 0.26 2.49 1.22 0.153 1 0.395 5 0.332 7
    K2O 0.13 0.21 0.50 1.12 0.167 2 0.289 6 0.280 7
    Na2O 1.06 0.55 0.234 2 0.242 2 0.280 2
    ZnO 0.01 0.007 7 0.008 8 0.009 0
    灰分 44.720 0 38.000 0 35.250 0
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-05-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-11-13
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