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人机共驾智能汽车的控制权切换与安全性综述

吴超仲 吴浩然 吕能超

吴超仲, 吴浩然, 吕能超. 人机共驾智能汽车的控制权切换与安全性综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2018, 18(6): 131-141. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2018.06.014
引用本文: 吴超仲, 吴浩然, 吕能超. 人机共驾智能汽车的控制权切换与安全性综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2018, 18(6): 131-141. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2018.06.014
WU Chao-zhong, WU Hao-ran, LYU Neng-chao. Review of control switch and safety of human-computer driving intelligent vehicle[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2018, 18(6): 131-141. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2018.06.014
Citation: WU Chao-zhong, WU Hao-ran, LYU Neng-chao. Review of control switch and safety of human-computer driving intelligent vehicle[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2018, 18(6): 131-141. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2018.06.014

人机共驾智能汽车的控制权切换与安全性综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2018.06.014
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 51775396

国家自然科学基金项目 U1664262

国家自然科学基金项目 51678460

国家自然科学基金项目 U1764262

湖北省自然科学基金计划项目 ZRMS2017001571

武汉市科技计划项目 2017050304010268

武汉市科技计划项目 2018010402011175

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴超仲(1972-), 男, 湖北天门人, 武汉理工大学教授, 工学博士, 从事交通安全与驾驶行为研究

    通讯作者:

    吕能超(1982-), 男, 湖北黄冈人, 武汉理工大学副教授, 工学博士

  • 中图分类号: U471.1

Review of control switch and safety of human-computer driving intelligent vehicle

More Information
    Author Bio:

    WU Chao-zhong(1972-), male, professor, PhD, wucz@whut.edu.cn

    Corresponding author: LYU Neng-chao(1982-), male, associate professor, PhD, lnc@whut.edu.cn
  • 摘要: 根据智能汽车技术发展特点和趋势提出了人机共驾的概念; 从切换的发起者、强制性与计划性三方面论述了人机共驾智能汽车控制权切换的分类方法, 分析了广义和狭义2种分类的特点和应用范围; 从驾驶人的认知、驾驶负荷、反应力等方面剖析了人机共驾中人因的特性及其对控制权切换安全性的影响, 总结了控制权切换的试验研究方法和人机交互形式, 指出了控制权切换安全性研究存在的问题和未来发展方向。分析结果表明: 人机共驾智能汽车的应用范围是L2~L3级自动驾驶, 特点是人与系统彼此协同完成动态的驾驶任务; 由系统主动发起、驾驶人被动接管的控制权切换情形与安全性更被业内关注; 驾驶人能有效地对当前驾驶状态进行认知和评估, 进而接管车辆操作, 并最终规避风险, 是保证控制权切换安全性的关键; 人因是影响控制权安全平稳切换的重要因素, 主要表现为认知水平偏低, 切换前后驾驶负荷阶跃式突变, 次任务的影响机理不明确, 反应力随切换场景的不同而差异显著等; 该领域的主要研究还包括接管绩效的评价, 切换时机与人机交互方式的优化以及试验手段的提升等。

     

  • 图  1  每百万英里事故数

    Figure  1.  Crashes per million miles

    图  2  受伤人数

    Figure  2.  Number of injuries

    图  3  控制权切换过程

    Figure  3.  Process of control switch

    图  4  典型的SuRT次任务———在屏幕上点击最大的圆圈图案

    Figure  4.  Typical SuRT subtask—click on the largest circle on the screen

    图  5  多项接管反应时间量化结果

    Figure  5.  Quantitative results of various take over reaction times

    图  6  人机共驾试验车

    Figure  6.  Test vehicle of human-computer driving

    图  7  人机共驾驾驶模拟器

    Figure  7.  Driving simulator of human-computer driving

    表  1  SAE J3016标准中自动驾驶级别

    Table  1.   Automated driving levels in SAE J3016standard

    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  控制权切换试验中的典型关键事件

    Table  2.   Typical key events in experiments of control switch

    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-07-12
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-25

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