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重大突发公共卫生事件下城市应急医疗物资配送

赵建有 韩万里 郑文捷 赵阳

赵建有, 韩万里, 郑文捷, 赵阳. 重大突发公共卫生事件下城市应急医疗物资配送[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2020, 20(3): 168-177. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.03.016
引用本文: 赵建有, 韩万里, 郑文捷, 赵阳. 重大突发公共卫生事件下城市应急医疗物资配送[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2020, 20(3): 168-177. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.03.016
ZHAO Jian-you, HAN Wan-li, ZHENG Wen-jie, ZHAO Yang. Distribution of emergency medical supplies in cities under major public health emergency[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2020, 20(3): 168-177. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.03.016
Citation: ZHAO Jian-you, HAN Wan-li, ZHENG Wen-jie, ZHAO Yang. Distribution of emergency medical supplies in cities under major public health emergency[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2020, 20(3): 168-177. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.03.016

重大突发公共卫生事件下城市应急医疗物资配送

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.03.016
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 71971030

陕西省交通运输厅科研项目 18-27R

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金项目 300102228114

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵建有(1963-), 男, 河南西峡人, 长安大学教授, 工学博士, 从事物流工程与交通运输安全研究

    通讯作者:

    韩万里(1987-), 男, 河南项城人, 长安大学工学博士研究生

  • 中图分类号: U121

Distribution of emergency medical supplies in cities under major public health emergency

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 71971030

Scientific Research Project of Department of Transport of Shaanxi Province 18-27R

Special Foundation for Basic Scientific Research of Central Colleges of China 300102228114

More Information
  • 摘要: 为了在发生重大突发公共卫生事件时提高城市医疗物资的应急救援效率, 减少人员伤亡与经济损失, 在分析重大突发公共卫生事件特点与应急物流特征的基础上, 将需求紧迫度作为配送影响因素, 提出以辖区人口、感染确诊及疑似病例、医疗物资需求点规模、医护人员数量和医疗物资缺口率为评价指标的医疗物资需求点需求紧迫度评价指标体系; 针对医疗物资应急物流的特点, 调整医疗物资配送时间窗参数, 建立由车辆行驶成本、配送延误惩罚成本和无配送延误补贴费用组成的总配送费用函数, 并考虑配送车辆载重、配送时间窗、医疗物资需求紧迫度等约束条件, 构建使总配送费用最少与需求紧迫度高的需求点优先配送的双重目标, 优化了医疗物资的配送路径; 依托SPSS、Yaahp和MATLAB软件平台, 结合算例, 利用层次分析法与遗传算法求解考虑与不考虑需求紧迫度的医疗物资应急物流配送路径优化模型。研究结果表明: 重大突发公共卫生事件下, 相对于不考虑需求紧迫度的配送路径, 考虑需求紧迫度的最优配送路径不仅对需求紧迫度较高的医疗物资需求点进行优先配送, 同时还使总配送费用减少了5.8%;需求紧迫度的引入能极大地改善调度的盲目性, 基于配送车辆载重、配送时间窗、医疗物资需求紧迫度等约束条件所构建的双目标优化模型能够有效地提高应急救援效率和减少不必要的调度成本。

     

  • 图  1  应急医疗物资需求点需求紧迫度评价指标体系

    Figure  1.  Evaluation index system of demand urgency for emergency medical supplies demand point

    图  2  应急医疗物资配送路径

    Figure  2.  Distribution paths of emergency medical supplies

    图  3  遗传算法运算过程

    Figure  3.  Operation process of genetic algorithm

    表  1  各医疗物资需求点信息

    Table  1.   Information of each medical supplies demand point

    需求紧迫度评价指标 辖区人口/万人 感染确诊及疑似病例/人 医疗物资需求点规模/m2 医护人员数量/人 医疗物资缺口率/%
    需求点1 1 5 417 10 611 67 40
    需求点2 64 268 63 739 90 80
    需求点3 144 3 417 35 375 77 70
    需求点4 155 3 525 88 078 60 60
    需求点5 31 5 801 61 251 90 10
    需求点6 13 4 275 20 956 76 30
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各医疗物资需求点标准化信息

    Table  2.   Standardized information of each medical supplies demand point

    需求紧迫度评价指标 辖区人口标准化值 感染确诊及疑似病例标准化值 医疗物资需求点规模标准化值 医护人员数量标准化值 医疗物资缺口率标准化值
    需求点1 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.21 0.43
    需求点2 0.41 0.00 0.69 0.99 1.00
    需求点3 0.93 0.57 0.32 0.57 0.86
    需求点4 1.00 0.59 1.00 0.00 0.71
    需求点5 0.19 1.00 0.65 0.96 0.00
    需求点6 0.08 0.72 0.13 0.55 0.29
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  指标得分

    Table  3.   Scores of indexes

    评价指标 辖区人口 确诊及疑似病例 医疗物资需求点规模 医护人员数量 医疗物资缺口率
    辖区人口 1 1 4 3 1
    确诊及疑似病例 1 1 4 3 1
    医疗物资需求点规模 1/4 1/4 1 1 1/5
    医护人员数量 1/3 1/3 1 1 1/4
    医疗物资缺口率 1 1 5 4 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  医疗物资需求点参数

    Table  4.   Medical supplies demand points parameters

    参数 物资配送中心0 需求点1 需求点2 需求点3 需求点4 需求点5 需求点6
    医疗物资需求/单位质量 0.0 4.0 3.0 1.5 4.5 1.5 2.0
    最晚配送时间/h 10 000.0 2.3 0.8 2.5 2.0 2.3 2.3
    各需求点相对需求紧迫度 1.00 1.10 1.50 2.06 2.00 1.25 1.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  其他参数设置

    Table  5.   Other parameter settings

    参数 取值
    车辆额定载质量/单位质量 8
    延误时单位时间惩罚成本/单位费用 60
    无配送延误时单位补贴费用/单位费用 120
    车辆单位时间的行驶成本/单位费用 200
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  各医疗物资需求点最短距离

    Table  6.   Minimum distances of each medical supplies demand point  h

    需求点 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
    0 0.00 2.00 1.80 2.00 1.50 1.20 0.80
    1 2.00 0.00 1.50 1.40 1.80 1.50 1.50
    2 1.80 1.50 0.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00
    3 2.00 1.40 2.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 1.00
    4 1.50 1.80 2.00 1.00 0.00 1.50 0.80
    5 1.20 1.50 2.00 2.00 1.50 0.00 1.30
    6 0.80 1.50 2.00 1.00 0.80 1.30 0.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  考虑与不考虑需求紧迫度的配送路线

    Table  7.   Distribution routes considering demand urgency or not

    求解结果 考虑需求紧迫度 不考虑需求紧迫度
    配送路线1 0-2-1-0 0-1-2-0
    配送路线2 0-4-3-6-0 0-6-3-4-0
    配送路线3 0-5-0 0-5-0
    总配送费用/单位费用 1 732.8 1 840.8
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-03-08
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