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客流特征视角下的轨道交通网络特征及其脆弱性

马超群 张爽 陈权 曹蕊 任璐

马超群, 张爽, 陈权, 曹蕊, 任璐. 客流特征视角下的轨道交通网络特征及其脆弱性[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2020, 20(5): 208-216. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.05.017
引用本文: 马超群, 张爽, 陈权, 曹蕊, 任璐. 客流特征视角下的轨道交通网络特征及其脆弱性[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2020, 20(5): 208-216. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.05.017
MA Chao-qun, ZHANG Shuang, CHEN Quan, CAO Rui, REN Lu. Characteristics and vulnerability of rail transit network besed on perspective of passenger flow characteristics[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2020, 20(5): 208-216. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.05.017
Citation: MA Chao-qun, ZHANG Shuang, CHEN Quan, CAO Rui, REN Lu. Characteristics and vulnerability of rail transit network besed on perspective of passenger flow characteristics[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2020, 20(5): 208-216. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.05.017

客流特征视角下的轨道交通网络特征及其脆弱性

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2020.05.017
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 71871027

住房和城乡建设部科学技术项目计划 2016-K2-033

详细信息
    作者简介:

    马超群(1978-), 男, 浙江东阳人, 长安大学副教授, 工学博士, 从事交通规划研究

  • 中图分类号: U491.17

Characteristics and vulnerability of rail transit network besed on perspective of passenger flow characteristics

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 71871027

Science and Technology Project of the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development 2016-K2-033

More Information
  • 摘要: 为提高城市轨道交通网络脆弱性评估的客观性, 将乘客需求特性集成到网络脆弱性的计算中; 在城市轨道交通网络Space L空间下静态拓扑结构的基础上, 以客流为权重建立了轨道交通加权网络; 基于客流指标提出了车站连接强度和加权节点介数, 用于反映动态网络结构特征, 度量节点间相互作用强度; 针对城市轨道交通网络客流的时空特性, 结合网络客流需求特性, 基于出行消耗最大容限阈值, 构建了站点故障条件下的乘客有效路径子图和网络客流的OD损失率, 进而评估城市轨道交通网络的脆弱性; 以西安城市轨道交通网络为例, 从网络客流视角分析了城市轨道交通网络特征及其脆弱性。研究结果表明: 西安市轨道交通网络具有小世界网络特性, 平均路径长度为10.7, 其中小寨站和北大街站为网络关键节点, 其车站连接强度分别为166 795、149 059, 加权节点介数分别为0.365、0.369, 这两个站点的中断对西安市轨道交通网络效率的影响分别为40.1%、39.4%;乘客出行容限阈值极大地影响着网络中站点的重要性排序, 网络脆弱性随着乘客出行容限阈值的增大而逐渐降低; 脆弱性与介数的相关性强于脆弱性与度和强度的相关性, 随着出行容限阈值的增大, 加权介数与其脆弱性的关联性逐渐降低。可见, 提出的计算指标和方法突出了客流特征与乘客需求对轨道交通网络脆弱性的影响, 能够很好地体现轨道交通网络的功能特性。

     

  • 图  1  西安市轨道交通网络拓扑结构

    Figure  1.  Topological structure of Xi'an rail transit network

    图  2  最短路径长度累计概率曲线

    Figure  2.  Curve of accumulative probability of shortest path length

    图  3  西安市轨道交通高峰小时客流量分布

    Figure  3.  Peak hour passenger flow distribution in Xi'an rail transit

    图  4  各线路之间换乘客流

    Figure  4.  Transfer passenger flows between lines

    图  5  站点损失率

    Figure  5.  Loss rates of stations

    图  6  不同R下网络脆弱性变化曲线

    Figure  6.  Variation curve of network vulnerability with R

    图  7  R=1时站点脆弱性分布

    Figure  7.  Station vulnerability distribution when R=1

    图  8  R=2时站点脆弱性分布

    Figure  8.  Station vulnerability distribution when R=2

    表  1  西安市轨道交通网络特征指标与取值

    Table  1.   Characteristic indexes and values of Xi'an rail transit network

    特征指标 取值
    节点数 88
    边数 90
    平均度 2.05
    平均介数 0.11
    网络直径 27
    平均路径长度 10.7
    平均聚类系数 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  指标排名前十的车站

    Table  2.   Top ten stations based on indexes

    站点编号 Di 站点编号 Bi
    33 166 795 10 0.369
    10 149 059 33 0.365
    46 104 232 28 0.225
    14 102 959 14 0.219
    11 95 552 29 0.206
    45 89 909 30 0.204
    29 85 849 46 0.204
    28 85 506 31 0.196
    30 82 854 27 0.194
    31 80 615 32 0.193
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  站点脆弱性与各指标的Pearson相关系数

    Table  3.   Pearson correlation coefficients between vulnerabilities and indicators of stations

    计算情形 指标 Di Bi Di Bi
    客流非均匀分布(实际情形) S(1.0) 0.59 0.75 0.97 0.99
    S(1.5) 0.61 0.60 0.85 0.82
    S(2.0) 0.56 0.47 0.76 0.72
    S(2.5) 0.53 0.42 0.71 0.68
    S(3.0) 0.50 0.39 0.69 0.65
    客流均匀分布(假设情形) S(1.0) 0.73 0.98 0.74 0.76
    S(1.5) 0.68 0.70 0.46 0.44
    S(2.0) 0.60 0.56 0.36 0.35
    S(2.5) 0.57 0.52 0.33 0.33
    S(3.0) 0.55 0.50 0.31 0.31
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  各站点脆弱性对比

    Table  4.   Comparison of vulnerabilities among stations

    R=1 R=2 站点排名变化
    站点编号 站点名称 实际OD客流分布下网络平均损失率 OD客流均匀分布下网络平均损失率 站点编号 站点名称 实际OD客流分布下网络平均损失率 OD客流均匀分布下网络平均损失率
    33 小寨站 0.401 0.283 33 小寨站 0.397 0.271 0
    10 北大街站 0.394 0.449 10 北大街站 0.248 0.236 0
    28 安远门 0.248 0.260 14 通化门 0.233 0.351 1
    14 通化门 0.245 0.378 45 吉祥村 0.220 0.130 3
    27 龙首原 0.240 0.245 44 太白南路 0.202 0.109 5
    46 大雁塔 0.222 0.315 34 纬一街 0.188 0.130 9
    45 吉祥村 0.220 0.130 35 会展中心 0.176 0.109 10
    29 钟楼 0.214 0.145 43 科技路 0.171 0.089 10
    26 大明宫西 0.210 0.230 9 洒金桥 0.140 0.188 15
    44 太白南路 0.202 0.109 23 行政中心 0.139 0.193 12
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-20
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