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中国轨道交通轮轨滚动接触疲劳研究进展

赵鑫 温泽峰 王衡禹 陶功权 金学松

赵鑫, 温泽峰, 王衡禹, 陶功权, 金学松. 中国轨道交通轮轨滚动接触疲劳研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(1): 1-35. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.001
引用本文: 赵鑫, 温泽峰, 王衡禹, 陶功权, 金学松. 中国轨道交通轮轨滚动接触疲劳研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(1): 1-35. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.001
ZHAO Xin, WEN Ze-feng, WANG Heng-yu, TAO Gong-quan, JIN Xue-song. Research progress on wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue of rail transit in China[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(1): 1-35. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.001
Citation: ZHAO Xin, WEN Ze-feng, WANG Heng-yu, TAO Gong-quan, JIN Xue-song. Research progress on wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue of rail transit in China[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(1): 1-35. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.001

中国轨道交通轮轨滚动接触疲劳研究进展

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.001
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 51675444

中国-拉美和加勒比国家共同体轨道交通联合实验室项目 KY201701001

牵引动力国家重点实验室自主课题 2019TPL_T17

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵鑫(1981-),男,山东新泰人,西南交通大学副研究员,工学博士,从事轮轨关系研究

  • 中图分类号: U270.1

Research progress on wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue of rail transit in China

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51675444

Project of China- CELAC United Laboratory for Rail Transit KY201701001

Independent Subject of State Key Laboratory of Traction Power 2019TPL_T17

More Information
  • 摘要: 系统阐述了轮轨滚动接触疲劳损伤的分类、萌生机理、影响因素、引发后果及常用萌生预测模型等,总结了其复杂性的根源; 梳理了中国轨道交通系统近年来发生的各种轮轨滚动接触疲劳的相关研究成果,分别总结了高速铁路、普速铁路和地铁等系统轮轨滚动接触疲劳的基本特征、萌生机理及治理措施等; 展示了在局部和连续型滚动接触疲劳研究中,现场跟踪测试、现场试样失效分析、试验台试验、数值模拟及线路试验等研究方法的系统化应用及重要结果; 讨论了不同轨道交通系统滚动接触疲劳差异的根本原因及滚动接触疲劳各影响因素的相对重要性,并从现场治理和机理研究2个方面提出了展望。研究结果表明:高速动车组轮轨局部型滚动接触疲劳(月牙形裂纹)对运营安全的威胁可控,其重要源头之一是硌伤; 过大的接触应力和蠕滑率是引发轮轨连续型滚动接触疲劳的关键,其根本原因包括小半径曲线、轮轨失形、轮轨廓形与轨道曲线设计不合理、大坡度与起伏坡度、低黏着与增黏、频繁启停及轨道安装误差等,近10年来开始大量使用的大功率电力机车在复杂条件线路运行时,呈现的严重车轮滚动接触疲劳是上述影响因素综合作用的集中体现; 可行的滚动接触疲劳防治措施包括避免或及时修复严重硌伤、优化曲线段轮轨廓形匹配、优化轮轨镟修/打磨策略、加装或优化车轮研磨子、机车车辆定期调头运行、优化机车电气补偿与牵引制动控制、使用优质增黏砂、优化踏面制动和及时维护轨道与列车关键部件等,不同轮轨系统可根据其特点酌情选用; 从现场防治角度,应建立轮轨滚动接触疲劳的精确预测模型,并依此实现不同服役条件下的滚动接触疲劳无限和有限寿命设计及最佳轮轨维修策略制定; 从疲劳机理角度,应重点研究疲劳裂纹萌生的微观裂纹扩展机制和磨耗影响机制。

     

  • 图  1  萌生于接触表面(左)和次表层(右)的轮轨滚动接触疲劳

    Figure  1.  Wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue initiated on contact surface (left) and subsurface (right)

    图  2  连续型轮轨滚动接触疲劳

    Figure  2.  Continuous wheel/rail rolling contact fatigue

    图  3  中国轮轨系统发现的典型局部型滚动接触疲劳

    Figure  3.  Typical local rolling contact fatigue occurring in Chinese wheel-rail systems

    图  4  典型滚滑状态下法、切向轮轨接触应力分布

    Figure  4.  Distributions of normal and tangential contact stresses under typical rolling-sliding state

    图  5  施加法、切向接触应力时轨头纵向截面(通过接触斑中心)V-M等效应力分布

    Figure  5.  Distributions of V-M equivalent stresses in longitudinal section of rail head (passing contact patch center) under normal and tangential contact stresses

    图  6  钢轨内V-M等效应力沿深度的分布

    Figure  6.  Distributions of V-M equivalent stress of rail along depth

    图  7  不同磨耗率下的轮轨接触表面损伤形态

    Figure  7.  Wheel/rail contact surface damage states under different wear rates

    图  8  轮轨服役寿命主导损伤形式随磨耗率的变化

    Figure  8.  Variation of damage form dominated by wheel and rail service life with wear rate

    图  9  液体对滚动接触疲劳裂纹扩展的影响

    Figure  9.  Influence of liquid on propagation of rolling contact fatigue crack

    图  10  撒增黏砂后的车轮接触表面

    Figure  10.  Wheel contact surfaces after sanding for adhesion enhancement

    图  11  安定图

    Figure  11.  Shakedown map

    图  12  循环载荷作用下的4种材料响应

    Figure  12.  Four types of material responses under cyclic loading

    图  13  英国BS11(R220)钢轨损伤函数模型

    Figure  13.  Damage function developed for UK BS11 (R220) rail

    图  14  车轮硌伤在法向接触载荷作用下的变形及V-M等效应力分布

    Figure  14.  Deformation and V-M equivalent stress distributions at wheel indentations under normal contact load

    图  15  GPM-30滚动接触疲劳试验台

    Figure  15.  GPM-30 test rig for rolling contact fatigue

    图  16  试验盘在轮轨中的取材位置及尺寸

    Figure  16.  Positions and dimensions of test discs manufactured from wheel and rail

    图  17  丝锥顶尖冲击硌伤演化

    Figure  17.  Evolvement of indentations impacted by tap tips

    图  18  最高速度200 km·h-1动车组上第1类车轮连续型滚动接触疲劳(2014年)

    Figure  18.  Type 1 continuous rolling contact fatigue of wheel on EMUs running at top speed of 200 km·h-1 (2014)

    图  19  城际线路动车组上第1类车轮连续型滚动接触疲劳(2017年)

    Figure  19.  Type 1 continuous rolling contact fatigue of wheel on intercity EMUs (2017)

    图  20  动车组车厢通过曲线时低轨侧车轮滚动接触疲劳预测结果

    Figure  20.  Rolling contact fatigue prediction results of wheels on low rail side of EMU coach when passing through curve

    图  21  不同镟后里程动车组车厢通过曲线时2轴低轨侧车滚动接触轮疲劳预测结果

    Figure  21.  Rolling contact fatigue prediction results of wheel on low rail side of axle 2 when EMU coach with different running distances after repairing passing through curves

    图  22  城际动车组匀速通过不同半径曲线时车轮的损伤函数预测结果(1轴导向)

    Figure  22.  Prediction results of wheels by damage function when intercity EMU passing curves of different radii at constant speed (axle 1 leads)

    图  23  某城际动车组运行线路上的曲线高轨滚动接触疲劳(2019)

    Figure  23.  Rolling contact fatigue on high rail of curve on an intercity EMU line (2019)

    图  24  华北某机务段A的C型大功率电力机车车轮滚动接触疲劳(2016)

    Figure  24.  Wheel rolling contact fatigue on C-type high power electric locomotive in railway bureau A in North China

    图  25  西北某机务段B的D型大功率电力机车车轮滚动接触疲劳(2016)

    Figure  25.  Wheel rolling contact fatigue on D-type high power electric locomotive in railway bureau B in Northwest China

    图  26  机务段A的C型大功率电力机车使用的增黏砂

    Figure  26.  Sands for adhesion enhancement used for C-type high power electric locomotive in railway bureau A

    图  27  机务段B的D型大功率电力机车使用的增黏砂

    Figure  27.  Sands for adhesion enhancement used for D-type high power electric locomotive in railway bureau B

    图  28  机车通过不同半径平面右曲线时3轴左轮滚动接触疲劳的损伤函数预测结果

    Figure  28.  Rolling contact fatigue of left wheel of axle 3 predicted by damage function when locomotive passing through right curves of different radii

    图  29  机车通过不同坡度直线时1轴左轮滚动接触疲劳的损伤函数预测结果

    Figure  29.  Rolling contact fatigue of left wheel of axle 1 predicted by damage function when locomotive passing through straight line tracks with different slopes

    图  30  机车通过半径800 m右曲线和直线时3轴左轮滚动接触疲劳损伤函数预测结果随坡度变化

    Figure  30.  Variations of rolling contact fatigue of left wheel of axle 3 with slope predicted by damage function when locomotive running on right curve of 800 m radius and straight line track

    图  31  机车通过半径600 m右曲线不同坡度时滚动接触疲劳预测结果

    Figure  31.  Rolling contact fatigue prediction results when locomotive running on right curve of 600 m radius with different slopes

    图  32  干态直线下坡工况下损伤函数预测结果

    Figure  32.  Prediction results by damage function under dry and downhill straight line track condition

    图  33  湿态直线下坡工况下损伤函数预测结果

    Figure  33.  Prediction results by damage function under wet and straight line track condition

    图  34  直线下坡工况下D型机车各轴左轮法向力

    Figure  34.  Normal forces on left wheels of D-type locomotive under downhill straight line track condition

    图  35  成都车辆段25G客车滚动接触疲劳裂纹

    Figure  35.  Wheel rolling contact fatigue crack on 25G passenger train in Chengdu

    图  36  朔黄重载线500 m半径曲线高轨斜裂纹平均长度和深度变化

    Figure  36.  Variations of average length and depth of oblique crack in high rail on curve of 500 m radius on Shuohuang Heavy Haul Line

    图  37  广深线K14+600处曲线高轨斜裂纹

    Figure  37.  Oblique cracks on high rail of curve at K14+600 of Guangshen Line

    图  38  中国A型地铁列车第2类车轮滚动接触疲劳

    Figure  38.  Type 2 wheel rolling contact fatigue of on A-type metro trains in China

    图  39  地铁动车通过不同半径曲线时各车轮的损伤函数疲劳峰值

    Figure  39.  Peak values of damage function of various wheels when metro motor passing through curves with different radii

    图  40  某地铁线路300 m半径曲线高轨上细条状滚动接触疲劳(U75V材质)

    Figure  40.  Long-strip rolling contact fatigue on high rail of metro line with radius of 300 m (U75V rail material)

    图  41  闸瓦磨耗导致地铁车轮轮缘根部出现台阶

    Figure  41.  Stair close to root of metro wheel flange resulting from braking shoe wear

    图  42  某地铁线路上由异常车轮磨耗导致的道岔心轨滚动接触疲劳

    Figure  42.  Rolling contact fatigue on point rail of turnout of metro line resulting from abnormal worn wheels

    表  1  不同轮轨系统的关键参数及其滚动接触疲劳特点

    Table  1.   Key parameters of different wheel/rail systems and characteristics of corresponding rolling contact fatigue

    铁路类型 高速 普速 城市地铁
    干线 城际 机车 客运 货运
    机车车辆 最高速度/(km·h-1) 200~350 ≤200 120、160 80~100 80~100
    轴重/t 14~17 21~23 14 21~25 14~16
    轮径/mm 860、915、920 1 250 915 840 840
    车轮廓形 LMA、S1002CN、LMB10 JM3 LM LM、DIN5573
    车轮材质 ER8 ER8、ER9、Grade 3 CL60 CL60、ER8、ER9
    轨道 最小半径/m 3 500(250 km·h-1)、7 000(350 km·h-1) 约350 约250 约200
    钢轨材质 U71MnG U71MnG、U75VG U71Mn、U75V和U78CrV等的热轧或热处理
    轨型 CHN60、CHN60N
    滚动接触疲劳 特点 车轮发生严重局部疲劳,偶见轻微连续型疲劳 发生轻微至中度连续型疲劳 复杂条件线路上车轮多发第1~3类连续疲劳,3类为最 车轮发生轻微第1类连续疲劳,小半径曲线钢轨中度连续疲劳 重载曲线轨发生中度至严重连续疲劳 发生中度至严重连续型疲劳
    原因 异物硌伤、轮轨过度失形、曲轨廓形不合理、研磨子作用不合理等 牵引/制动频繁,小半径曲线,曲线设计不合理,轮轨失形等 小半径曲线、大坡度、低黏着、增黏砂、制动力集中、轴重转移及不合理电气补偿等 小半径曲线、大坡度或起伏坡道、轮轨廓形不匹配、低黏着、增黏砂等 牵引/制动频繁,小半径曲线,曲线设计不合理,轮缘过度润滑,踏面制动磨耗,轮轨失形等
    应对措施 清理异物,及时维修深硌伤,曲轨廓形优化,监控轮轨失形,优化研磨子作用等 调头运行,曲线钢轨廓形优化,监控轮轨失形等 避免仅运行于杂条件线路,使用优质增黏砂,优化电气补偿和牵引/制动控制等 钢轨预打磨,曲线钢轨廓形优化,监控轮轨失形,使用合适强度的材质等 调头运行、轮轨廓形优化,监控轮轨失形,踏面制动优化,使用合适强度的材质等
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-11-10
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