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高速磁悬浮轨道交通研究进展

熊嘉阳 邓自刚

熊嘉阳, 邓自刚. 高速磁悬浮轨道交通研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(1): 177-198. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.008
引用本文: 熊嘉阳, 邓自刚. 高速磁悬浮轨道交通研究进展[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(1): 177-198. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.008
XIONG Jia-yang, DENG Zi-gang. Research progress of high-speed maglev rail transit[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(1): 177-198. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.008
Citation: XIONG Jia-yang, DENG Zi-gang. Research progress of high-speed maglev rail transit[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(1): 177-198. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.008

高速磁悬浮轨道交通研究进展

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.01.008
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 U19A20102

详细信息
    作者简介:

    熊嘉阳(1969-),男,四川峨眉人,西南交通大学副教授,工学博士,从事车辆轨道系统动力学、磁悬浮车辆系统动力学研究

  • 中图分类号: U271.91

Research progress of high-speed maglev rail transit

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China U19A20102

More Information
  • 摘要: 从磁悬浮轨道交通的基本原理、磁悬浮列车的技术特点等角度出发,简述了世界各国高速磁悬浮轨道交通的发展概况,对比了常导电磁悬浮、永磁电动磁悬浮、低温超导电动磁悬浮和高温超导磁悬浮等4种磁悬浮方式的研究历史、悬浮特点、悬浮间隙、悬浮能耗、控制系统、技术成熟度与应用情况;采用文献调研、比对、分析、提炼等方法,综述了国内外高校、研究机构和企业对于高速磁悬浮的研究进展;比较了各类磁悬浮轨道交通的原理、技术优势和劣势,分析了高速磁悬浮轨道交通在应用方面的可行性与不足,探讨了4种磁悬浮方式的技术经济性和应用前景与场景;提出了当前发展高速及超高速真空管道磁悬浮轨道交通亟待解决的牵引制动控制、动力和热力学、安全救援、管道密封性能与抽真空效率、无线通信、车内环境控制等6个关键科学问题,并介绍了中国原创高温超导磁悬浮的基础研究及关键技术研发进展与研发计划。研究结果表明:在400~600 km·h-1速度范围可采用常导电磁悬浮或超导磁悬浮技术;在600~1 000 km·h-1速度范围可采用超导磁悬浮技术;1 000 km·h-1及以上的速度可采用高温超导磁悬浮与真空管道或电动磁悬浮与真空管道的磁悬浮技术;作为一种前瞻性研究,高温超导与真空管道磁悬浮关键技术的突破和验证对推动中国乃至世界轨道交通快速发展具有重大而深远的意义。

     

  • 图  1  EMS原理示意

    Figure  1.  Schematic of principle for EMS

    图  2  PMEDS原理示意

    Figure  2.  Schematic of principle for PMEDS

    图  3  LTSEDS原理示意

    Figure  3.  Schematic of principle for LTSEDS[8]

    图  4  HTS Maglev原理示意

    Figure  4.  Schematic of principle for HTS maglev

    图  5  德国TR系列磁悬浮试验车

    Figure  5.  German TR series maglev test vehicle

    图  6  在宫崎试验线上日本MLU002型超导磁悬浮车

    Figure  6.  MLU002 superconducting maglev vehicle on Miyazaki Test Line, in Japan

    图  7  美国Hyperloop One公司研制的真空管道磁悬浮车辆

    Figure  7.  Vacuum-tube maglev vehicle developed by Hyperloop One Company in the United States

    图  8  德国EMS磁悬浮车TR08在上海浦东机场线

    Figure  8.  German EMS maglev vehicle TR08 on Shanghai Pudong Airport Line

    图  9  西南交通大学载人HTS环形试验线

    Figure  9.  Manned HTS maglev circular test line of Southwest Jiaotong University

    图  10  中国600 km·h-1高速磁悬浮试验样车

    Figure  10.  Test sample vehicle of high-speed maglev with speed of 600 km·h-1 in China

    图  11  高速飞行列车设计

    Figure  11.  Design of high speed flying train

    图  12  磁悬浮车辆和轮轨车辆承载方式

    Figure  12.  Load bearing modes of maglev vehicle and wheel/rail vehicle

    图  13  传统旋转电机转换为长、短定子结构直线电机的衍生

    Figure  13.  Derivation of linear motors with long and short stator structures from traditional rotating motor

    图  14  同济大学600 km·h-1高速磁悬浮试验样车

    Figure  14.  High-speed maglev test sample vehicle with speed of 600 km·h-1 in Tongji University

    图  15  超高速磁悬浮系统科学指标及关键科学问题

    Figure  15.  Scientific indexes and key scientific problems of ultra-high-speed maglev system

    表  1  不同磁悬浮方式的情况对比

    Table  1.   Comparison of different maglev modes

    悬浮类型 常导电磁悬浮 永磁电动磁悬浮 低温超导电动磁悬浮 高温超导磁悬浮
    开始时间 1934年专利 20世纪40年代 1966年专利 20世纪90年代开始,2001年中国专利
    导轨类型 T型导轨 弧形导体板轨道 U型导轨 平板式导轨
    车载磁体 线圈 永磁体 超导线圈 超导块材
    路轨铺设 硅钢片 铝感应板 “8”字线圈 永磁导轨
    悬浮间隙/mm 8~12 20~30 80~150 10~30
    推进方式 直线电机 直线电机 直线电机 直线电机
    控制系统 需主动控制,控制复杂,要求高 导向需主动控制 较复杂 简单
    悬浮能耗 较高 较低 较高 较低
    悬浮特点 电磁吸力,需能耗,静止可悬浮,悬浮气隙较小 电动斥力,悬浮不耗能,高速时悬浮,临界稳定,高速需引入阻尼以保证稳定 电动斥力,静止和低速时需轮子支撑,悬浮气隙大,高速需引入阻尼以保证稳定 磁通钉扎力,不通电、静止可悬浮,无源自悬浮,自稳定,自导向
    试验速度/(km·h-1) 550 463 603 ≥1 000
    研究技术的主要国家 德国、日本、中国、韩国 美国 日本 中国
    技术成熟度 已商业运营 试验研究 准商业运营 试验研究
    应用情况 中国上海浦东磁悬浮示范线、日本HSST型低速磁悬浮列车、美国Grummam方案、美国AMT磁悬浮系统 美国Hyperloop、美国Inductrack磁悬浮系统、美国Magplane 日本MLU系列 西南交通大学Super-Maglev试验线、德国SupraTrans系列试验车、巴西Maglev Cobra悬浮试验线、意大利拉奎拉大学V型轨道
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  磁悬浮轨道交通与其他交通方式综合比较

    Table  2.   Comprehensive comparison between maglev rail trancit and other modes of transportations

    交通方式 运营时速/(km·h-1) 安全性 运量 投资成本 振动噪声 能耗 气候影响运营 全天候运营 运载工具大修周期 技术难度、建设工期 工程拆迁难度 维管人员
    磁悬浮 80~430 更高 较大 较高 基本不影响 大、较长
    轮轨 80~350 较高 较高 影响较大 较易 大、较长
    航空 800~2 000 最高 影响大 大、较长 较小
    公路 80~200 较低 较高 影响较大 较难 小、短 较小
    水运 80~100 最低 影响大 小、短
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-15
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