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低空空域容量评估研究综述

张洪海 夷珈 李姗 刘皞 钟罡

张洪海, 夷珈, 李姗, 刘皞, 钟罡. 低空空域容量评估研究综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2023, 23(6): 78-93. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2023.06.003
引用本文: 张洪海, 夷珈, 李姗, 刘皞, 钟罡. 低空空域容量评估研究综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2023, 23(6): 78-93. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2023.06.003
ZHANG Hong-hai, YI Jia, LI Shan, LIU Hao, ZHONG Gang. Review on research of low-altitude airspace capacity evaluation[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2023, 23(6): 78-93. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2023.06.003
Citation: ZHANG Hong-hai, YI Jia, LI Shan, LIU Hao, ZHONG Gang. Review on research of low-altitude airspace capacity evaluation[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2023, 23(6): 78-93. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2023.06.003

低空空域容量评估研究综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2023.06.003
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 71971114

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张洪海(1979-),男,山东菏泽人,南京航空航天大学教授,工学博士,从事城市空中交通、通用航空及无人机管控研究

  • 中图分类号: V355

Review on research of low-altitude airspace capacity evaluation

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 71971114

More Information
  • 摘要: 梳理了空域容量的基本概念,回顾了空域容量评估方法研究的起源与发展历程,总结了4种典型空域容量评估方法(基于数学计算模型的评估方法、基于管制员工作负荷的雷达模拟机评估方法、基于计算机仿真模型的评估方法与基于数据驱动的评估方法)的主要研究成果,结合中国空域管理现状与改革需求,提出了低空空域容量评估框架,分别介绍了低空空域分类与航路划设、起降机场选址布局与容量评估、低空空域容量影响因素分析以及低空空域容量评估方法相关内容,结合未来发展趋势提出了展望。研究结果表明:低空空域分类与划设是容量评估的基本前提,应充分考虑低空空域环境的复杂性,结合航空器性能、应用场景科学规划;起降机场是低空空域环境的关键节点,场点选址与内部结构将直接影响整体低空空域容量水平;低空空域容量影响因素分析是关键步骤,发挥着与低空空域容量评估结果相互验证的作用;目前,尚未形成成熟的低空空域容量评估方法体系,重点介绍了3种方法,分别为基于阈值的空域容量评估方法、基于几何拓扑的空域容量评估方法以及基于控制变量的空域容量评估方法;总体来说,低空空域容量评估是实现低空空域资源合理配置、保证低空空域运行安全高效的重要内容,应结合中国空域管理特点,开展因地制宜的低空空域容量评估方法研究与试点验证。

     

  • 图  1  管制员工作负荷评估方法

    Figure  1.  Controller workload evaluation methods

    图  2  低空空域容量评估框架

    Figure  2.  Framework of low-attitude airspace capacity evaluation

    图  3  垂直起降机场结构

    Figure  3.  Structure of vertical take-off and landing airports

    图  4  基于几何拓扑的空域容量评估方法流程

    Figure  4.  Flow of geometrical topology-based airspace capacity evaluation method

    图  5  低空空域结构划设

    Figure  5.  Low-altitude airspace structure planning

    表  1  空域容量定义

    Table  1.   Definition of airspace capacity

    类别 定义 常用方法
    运行容量/实际容量 特定空域环境在可接受的延误水平下,单位时间内能够服务的最大航空器架次 基于计算机仿真模型的评估方法
    基于管制员工作负荷的雷达模拟机评估方法
    最大容量 特定空域环境在延误趋向于无穷大时,单位时间内能够服务的最大航空器架次,通常大于运行容量 基于计算机仿真模型的评估方法
    基于管制员工作负荷的雷达模拟机评估方法
    基于数据驱动的评估方法
    基于数学计算模型的评估方法(跑道)
    航班时刻安排容量 每小时航班时刻表安排的最大航班量,通常小于运行容量 依据空管、机场等单位保障能力确定
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  空域容量评估方法对比

    Table  2.   Comparison of airspace capacity evaluation methods

    空域容量评估方法 优点 不足
    基于数学计算模型的评估方法 起源较早,基本成熟,投入较少,评估结果较为准确 主要应用于机场跑道,无法刻画飞机飞行速度等影响因素对容量水平的影响
    基于管制员工作负荷的雷达模拟机评估方法 操作相对简单,评估结果较为准确 管制员表现的差异性会直接影响评估结果
    基于计算机仿真模型的评估方法 可表征气象等随机影响因素对空域容量的影响,较好地复现真实空域环境 投入成本高,研发周期长
    基于数据驱动的评估方法 可对机场整体运行情况进行较为准确的评估 数据误差或缺失直接影响评估结果的准确性
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  空域仿真软件

    Table  3.   Airspace simulation softwares

    软件名称 开发机构 功能特点
    SIMMOD 美国联邦航空局 精细度高,可实现机场以及终端区结构下,对空域规划、航空器进离港、航空器滑行、人为因素、突发情况等多场景仿真;复杂度高,对操作者有专业技术和基础知识要求
    TAAM 澳大利亚民用航空局杰普森公司 灵活全面,既可实现对全空域系统的仿真,也可针对某一特定结构或流程,支持连接TAAM全球航空导航数据;流程复杂,对数据量有一定的要求
    RAMS 欧洲航行安全组织实验中心ISA软件公司 快速有效,可实现对空中交通管制员工作负荷的统计评估,可输出交通密度、飞行冲突、交通流量等多指标统计结果;通用性较弱,对数据格式与质量有一定的要求
    AirTop 比利时Airtopsoft公司 功能全面,主要面向空中交通复杂度研究,界面友好,操作快捷,是现阶段行业内认可度较高的空域仿真软件
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  低空空域容量评估方法特点分析

    Table  4.   Analysis of characteristics of low-altitude airspace capacity evaluation methods

    低空空域容量评估方法 优点 不足
    基于阈值的空域容量评估方法 面向低空航空器自由飞行场景,不受空域结构限制 较为理想化,尚未考虑地形、建筑物等影响因素对低空空域容量水平的影响
    基于几何拓扑的空域容量评估方法 有效利用了无人机地理围栏技术,实现了城市高密度区域可用空域的识别 地理围栏半径选取直接影响评估结果;尚未考虑无人机飞行规则、空域结构等影响因素
    基于控制变量的空域容量评估方法 考虑了空域结构、交通密度、城市交通潮汐特点等影响因素 忽略了建筑物的影响,假设航空器均在建筑物上方运行
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  文献总结

    Table  5.   Literature review

    体系要素 主要贡献/技术 文献编号 所属机构
    低空空域的分类与航路划设 低空空域分类 基于预先规划的4D航迹, 提出了自由、分层、扇形、管道4种空域结构概念 [22] 代尔夫特理工大学
    为了加强小型无人机系统的安全集成, 提出将美国G类空域垂直分为低速区(60.96 m以下)、高速区(60.96~121.92 m)、禁飞区(121.92~152.40 m) [71] 亚马逊
    运用电子围栏技术实现了无人机可航行空域与障碍物的隔离 [74] 韩国高级科学技术学院
    航路网络划设 基于城市三维数据构建了矩阵节点型、建筑物节点型、道路沿线型3种构型的低空航路网络 [8] 南洋理工大学
    提出低空公共航线网络概念, 运用改进蚁群算法构建了天津区域的低空公共航路 [81] 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所
    起降机场的选址布局与容量 场址选择 基于地理信息数据, 面向eVTOL运行场景, 运用加权线性组合方法提出了一种城市空中交通地面基础设施选址方法 [87] 慕尼黑工业大学
    基于上海某区域地理信息与物流需求数据, 采用人类学习优化算法, 实现了对该区域的物流无人机多级起降点布局规划 [96] 南京航空航天大学
    内部布局 设计了单拓扑、线性拓扑、卫星拓扑、码头拓扑4种垂直起降机场内部构型, 通过可能产生的吞吐量辅助布局过程 [97] 慕尼黑航空
    场址容量 提出了一种基于整数规划的垂直起降机场容量评估方法, 对滑行道、停机坪等基础设施与容量水平的关系进行了分析 [100] 麻省理工学院
    将排队论引入垂直起降机场容量评估中, 提出了一种可接受延误水平下的垂直起降机场实际容量评估方法 [101] 南京航空航天大学
    低空容量影响因素分析 空域结构 通过仿真试验表明分层空域结构最为合理 [22] 代尔夫特理工大学
    通导监覆盖水平 随着通导监视技术发展, 低空空域容量也将随之提升 [69] 美国航空航天局
    运行间隔 面向自由运行场景, 研究了安全距离设定下, 交通密度和飞行冲突的关系 [103] 加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校
    分别面向机构化空域与非结构化空域, 提出了基于碰撞概率的无人机安全间隔标定方法 [104] 南京航空航天大学
    低空空域容量评估技术研究 基于阈值的空域容量评估技术 提出了冲突集群大小和归一化冲突时间2种指标表征空中交通复杂度, 以旧金山湾区为场景搭建仿真平台, 提出未来该区域无人机飞行可达到日均100 000架次 [103] 加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校
    基于几何拓扑的空域容量评估技术 通过禁止飞入地理围栏和禁止飞出地理围栏技术, 从可用空域识别的角度对城市空域容量进行了分析 [74] 韩国高级科学技术学院
    基于控制变量的空域容量评估方法 通过交通管理软件, 开展大规模仿真试验, 实现了对从分散化到结构化等4种空域结构的容量评估 [22] 代尔夫特理工大学
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-05-19
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