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钢轨擦伤形成机理、检测与防治综述

侯博文 乔林川 高亮 秦家栋 刘秀波 马超智

侯博文, 乔林川, 高亮, 秦家栋, 刘秀波, 马超智. 钢轨擦伤形成机理、检测与防治综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2024, 24(2): 65-84. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.004
引用本文: 侯博文, 乔林川, 高亮, 秦家栋, 刘秀波, 马超智. 钢轨擦伤形成机理、检测与防治综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2024, 24(2): 65-84. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.004
HOU Bo-wen, QIAO Lin-chuan, GAO Liang, QIN Jia-dong, LIU Xiu-bo, MA Chao-zhi. Review on formation mechanism, detection and prevention of rail squat[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2024, 24(2): 65-84. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.004
Citation: HOU Bo-wen, QIAO Lin-chuan, GAO Liang, QIN Jia-dong, LIU Xiu-bo, MA Chao-zhi. Review on formation mechanism, detection and prevention of rail squat[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2024, 24(2): 65-84. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.004

钢轨擦伤形成机理、检测与防治综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.004
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 52378428

国家铁路局课题 KF2023-027

中国国家铁路集团有限公司科技研究开发计划 N2023G078

详细信息
    作者简介:

    侯博文(1985-),男,辽宁沈阳人,北京交通大学副教授,工学博士,从事轨道工程与工务管理研究

    通讯作者:

    高亮(1968-),男,山东滕州人,北京交通大学教授,工学博士

  • 中图分类号: U216.4

Review on formation mechanism, detection and prevention of rail squat

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 52378428

Project of National Railway Administration KF2023-027

Science and Technology Research and Development Project of China State Railway Group Co., Ltd. N2023G078

More Information
  • 摘要: 针对铁路运营过程中存在的钢轨擦伤问题,从擦伤的深度、裂纹扩展角度、尺寸等方面总结了擦伤的具体形态特征,论述了钢轨擦伤的扩展过程;系统分析了钢轨擦伤的形成机理,从塑性变形和热致相变2个成因角度分析了轮轨接触压力、接触区应力应变、接触区温度变化在擦伤形成过程中的作用机制;从机车车辆性能、线路参数、轨道类型等方面明确了影响钢轨擦伤发展的主要因素;调研了基于轴箱加速度等不同方式的钢轨擦伤现场检测方法,对比分析了各种方法在擦伤检测方面的适用性;结合擦伤的形成机理与影响因素,从车辆牵引/制动控制、钢轨打磨等角度分析了擦伤防治的有效措施与策略。研究结果表明:目前对于钢轨擦伤形成机理及发展过程的研究主要采用现场调研、样本试验模拟和数值仿真等手段;由轮轨之间的大蠕滑、滑动状态所引起的钢轨母材极限变形、热致相变是钢轨擦伤形成的主要原因,列车运行状态、线路平纵断面参数和线下基础类型等因素会影响轮轨之间的接触状态,从而诱发擦伤的形成和发展;按照钢轨擦伤的检测方式划分,目前主要可采用轴箱加速度响应法、频响函数法与涡流探测法等,但各类检测方法的精度对于不同程度的擦伤有一定差别;针对钢轨擦伤的防治方面,在擦伤形成之前,控制列车牵引/制动过程中的轮轨黏着超限对于预防擦伤较为有效,在擦伤形成后,根据擦伤的不同程度可通过分级打磨或换轨等方式来降低安全隐患。

     

  • 图  1  常见钢轨伤损类型

    Figure  1.  Common types of rail defect

    图  2  典型擦伤形态

    Figure  2.  Typical squat form

    图  3  车轮经过时,擦伤区域2种不同受力状态

    Figure  3.  Two different stress states in squat area when wheel passes by

    图  4  凹陷区域光滑和粗糙部分对比

    Figure  4.  Comparison of smooth and rough parts in depression area

    图  5  钢轨擦伤不同阶段的特征

    Figure  5.  Characteristics of different stages of rail squat

    图  6  轮轨接触有限元模型

    Figure  6.  Finite element model of wheel-rail contact

    图  7  轮轨接触力-热耦合模型

    Figure  7.  Force-thermal coupling model of wheel-rail contact

    图  8  典型的焊缝处擦伤

    Figure  8.  Typical squats at welds

    图  9  塑性变形较为严重的区域产生裂纹

    Figure  9.  Cracks in areas with severe plastic deformation

    图  10  钢轨在剪切变形下形成的白层

    Figure  10.  WEL of rail formed under shear deformation

    图  11  计算摩擦热温升的轮轨接触模型

    Figure  11.  Wheel-rail contact model for calculating temperature rise due to frictional heat

    图  12  受损钢轨样品的横截面微观结构

    Figure  12.  Cross sectional microstructure of damaged rail sample

    图  13  擦伤在不同区间的分布

    Figure  13.  Distributions of squats in different intervals

    图  14  曲线线路上的擦伤数量统计

    Figure  14.  Statistics on numbers of squat on curve lines

    图  15  不同坡度下的擦伤频率分布

    Figure  15.  Distributions of squat frequency under different slopes

    图  16  擦伤在轨枕上和轨枕之间的数量分布

    Figure  16.  Distributions of numbers of squats on and between sleepers

    图  17  擦伤在混凝土枕和木枕上的数量分布

    Figure  17.  Distributions of numbers of squats on concrete sleepers and wooden sleepers

    图  18  擦伤调研的现场照片

    Figure  18.  Site photos of squat investigation

    图  19  ABA原理

    Figure  19.  Principle of ABA

    图  20  锤击试验装置

    Figure  20.  Hammer impact test device

    图  21  基于列车的涡流检测系统

    Figure  21.  Train based eddy current detection system

    表  1  擦伤距离分布

    Table  1.   Distributions of squat distances

    编号 钢轨位置 擦伤距离/m 擦伤个数
    1 35 km +28号 1.8 2
    2 41 km +14号右轨上行 1.8 2
    3 74 km +31号右轨上行 1.8×2 3
    4 74 km +31号左轨上行 1.8×2 3
    5 91 km +5号右轨下行 1.8×2 3
    6 91 km +14号左轨下行 1.8 2
    7 104 km +9号上行 1.8 2
    8 未知里程1 1.8 2
    9 未知里程2 1.8 2
    10 未知里程3 1
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  各类型机车参数

    Table  2.   Parameters of various types of locomotives

    机车类型 轴重/t 转向架轴距/mm 轴距/mm
    SS8 22 2 900 2 900
    DF4D 23 3 600 1 800
    DF11 23 4 000 2 000
    DF11C 23 4 000 2 000
    HXD3C 25 2 250+2 000 2 250/2 000
    CRH2 ≤14 2 500 2 500
    CRH5 ≤17 2 700 2 700
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同坡度的擦伤频数

    Table  3.   Squat frequencies of different slopes

    参数 0‰ 8‰~9‰ 其他 总计
    坡度擦伤频数 11.0 30.0 28.0 69.0
    擦伤频数百分比/% 15.9 43.4 40.7 100.0
    坡长/m 10 999.5 46 009.8 179 842.7 236 852.0
    坡长百分比/% 4.6 19.4 76.0 100.0
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2023-12-19
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-16
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-30

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