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轨道交通列车车轮多边形磨耗机理及其影响综述

吴丹 丁旺才

吴丹, 丁旺才. 轨道交通列车车轮多边形磨耗机理及其影响综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2024, 24(2): 85-101. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.005
引用本文: 吴丹, 丁旺才. 轨道交通列车车轮多边形磨耗机理及其影响综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2024, 24(2): 85-101. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.005
WU Dan, DING Wang-cai. Review on wear mechanism and influence of wheel polygon of rail transit train[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2024, 24(2): 85-101. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.005
Citation: WU Dan, DING Wang-cai. Review on wear mechanism and influence of wheel polygon of rail transit train[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2024, 24(2): 85-101. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.005

轨道交通列车车轮多边形磨耗机理及其影响综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2024.02.005
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 12262017

国家自然科学基金项目 11962013

甘肃省科技计划项目 21JR7RA335

详细信息
    作者简介:

    吴丹(1986-),男,甘肃庄浪人,兰州交通大学副教授,工学博士,从事车辆系统动力学与疲劳强度理论研究

    通讯作者:

    丁旺才(1964-),男,甘肃天水人,兰州交通大学教授,工学博士

  • 中图分类号: U211.5

Review on wear mechanism and influence of wheel polygon of rail transit train

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 12262017

National Natural Science Foundation of China 11962013

Science and Technology Program of Gansu Province 21JR7RA335

More Information
  • 摘要: 总结了近几年国内外轨道交通列车车轮多边形的研究成果,分析了导致车轮形成多边形的主要因素与发生机理以及动车组与地铁车辆多发的高阶车轮多边形不同的原因,探讨了车轮多边形的抑制措施,概括了车辆-轨道耦合动力学模型的产生与发展,总结了车辆-轨道耦合动力学仿真分析的主要成果,提出了考虑车轮多边形等轮轨周期性磨耗下的车辆-轨道系统零部件的疲劳损伤这一新研究方向。分析结果表明:车轮初始缺陷、轮轨摩擦自激振动、轮轨黏滑振动、轮轨系统P2共振、轮对固有模态振动、车轮直径与转向架组成部件引起的共振等会造成车轮多边形的发生;地铁车辆发生的车轮多边形主要是由轮轨系统P2共振所致,而高速动车组多发的高阶车轮多边形一般不是由P2共振直接引起的;提高车轮镟修质量、增加研磨子、提高车轮踏面硬度、增大扣件阻尼、变速运行等措施可以抑制车轮多边形的发展,但从车轮多边形的形成机理可知,车轮初始缺陷是起源,控制车轮初始缺陷是抑制车轮多边形形成与发展的根本,从可行性角度而言,增加研磨子是最理想的措施;当车轮存在高阶多边形后,轮轨激励频率会显著增大且范围分布更广,当激励频率与车辆某些部件的固有振动频率接近时,易引发共振,导致其动应力显著增大,影响其疲劳寿命,故分析车辆-轨道系统主要承载部件的疲劳损伤时,应考虑随机轨道不平顺以及轮轨周期性磨耗等不利因素。可见,现有研究成果基本揭示了车轮多边形的形成机理,并提出了可行的抑制措施,但考虑到列车运行环境的不确定性以及车辆-轨道耦合系统关联因素众多,分析过程难免与实际有差异,故仍需进一步深入研究。

     

  • 图  1  增加轴箱下部支撑

    Figure  1.  Increasing lower support of axle box

    图  2  200 km·h-1下轴箱和构架的振动频谱

    Figure  2.  Vibration spectra of axle box and frame at 200 km·h-1

    图  3  构架模态振型

    Figure  3.  Modal vibration modes of frame

    图  4  车辆-轨道刚柔耦合动力学模型

    Figure  4.  Vehicle-track rigid-flexible coupling dynamics model

    图  5  车轮多边形实测

    Figure  5.  Measurement of wheel polygon

    图  6  300 km·h-1速度下的轮轨垂向力频域

    Figure  6.  Frequency domains of wheel-rail vertical force at 300 km·h-1

    图  7  车轴疲劳寿命分布

    Figure  7.  Distribution of axle fatigue life

    表  1  构架模态分析结果

    Table  1.   Frame modal analysis results

    模态 阶数 频率/Hz 振型
    整体模态 7 32.95 侧梁绕横轴竖直方向的扭转
    11 77.58 两侧梁在水平面内的同向剪切
    12 84.28 两侧梁在竖直方向的1阶弯曲
    20 224.88 侧梁和横梁的2阶弯曲
    局部模态 21 237.35 轴箱弹簧套筒变形
    34 428.85 轴箱弹簧套筒和转臂座变形
    51 567.19 轴箱弹簧套筒和转臂座变形
    52 596.50 轴箱弹簧套筒和转臂座变形
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-10-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-16
  • 刊出日期:  2024-04-30

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