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高速列车轮轨激励作用机理及其影响综述

肖乾 王丹红 陈道云 朱海燕 周前哲 王一凡 罗志翔

肖乾, 王丹红, 陈道云, 朱海燕, 周前哲, 王一凡, 罗志翔. 高速列车轮轨激励作用机理及其影响综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(3): 93-109. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.005
引用本文: 肖乾, 王丹红, 陈道云, 朱海燕, 周前哲, 王一凡, 罗志翔. 高速列车轮轨激励作用机理及其影响综述[J]. 交通运输工程学报, 2021, 21(3): 93-109. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.005
XIAO Qian, WANG Dan-hong, CHEN Dao-yun, ZHU Hai-yan, ZHOU Qian-zhe, WANG Yi-fan, LUO Zhi-xiang. Review on mechanism and influence of wheel-rail excitation of high-speed train[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(3): 93-109. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.005
Citation: XIAO Qian, WANG Dan-hong, CHEN Dao-yun, ZHU Hai-yan, ZHOU Qian-zhe, WANG Yi-fan, LUO Zhi-xiang. Review on mechanism and influence of wheel-rail excitation of high-speed train[J]. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 2021, 21(3): 93-109. doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.005

高速列车轮轨激励作用机理及其影响综述

doi: 10.19818/j.cnki.1671-1637.2021.03.005
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 51975210

国家自然科学基金项目 51665015

江西省自然科学基金项目 20181ACB20007

江西省自然科学基金项目 20202ACBL204008

大功率交流传动电力机车系统集成国家重点实验室开放课题 13221430000480

详细信息
    作者简介:

    肖乾(1977-),男,湖南常德人,华东交通大学教授,工学博士,从事轨道车辆轮轨关系、轨道车辆运维装备研究与开发

  • 中图分类号: U270.11

Review on mechanism and influence of wheel-rail excitation of high-speed train

Funds: 

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51975210

National Natural Science Foundation of China 51665015

Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province 20181ACB20007

Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province 20202ACBL204008

Open Project of State Key Laboratory of Heavy Duty AC Drive Electric Locomotive Systems Integration 13221430000480

More Information
  • 摘要: 针对高速列车运行过程中普遍存在的轮轨激励问题,系统归纳了轮轨激励常用的研究方法,分析了引起轨道不平顺、车轮非圆等轮轨激励的原因及其作用机制,重点研究了车轮多边形磨耗、钢轨波磨等中高频轮轨激励的形成机理;从动力学性能和噪声方面阐述了轮轨激励作用对高速列车运行品质的影响,从疲劳损伤的角度分析了轮轨激励对车辆/轨道系统零部件服役性能的影响;结合现有监测技术和轮轨激励研究方法,提出了高速列车轮轨激励的研究展望。研究结果表明:现场观测、数值仿真和试验模拟是目前研究轮轨激励最常用的方法;轮轨摩擦自激振动、车辆/轨道系统零部件结构共振、材料自身特性及工艺质量是导致轮轨激励形成的根本原因;系统结构参数、运行速度、里程、载重、线路条件等因素都会影响轮轨激励的形成和发展;低频激励的存在虽然会限制列车曲线通过速度,但对车辆/轨道系统零部件服役性能影响不大;中高频激励会严重影响列车运行品质,使系统长期处于中高频振动状态,引起零部件的结构共振,加速系统零部件的疲劳损伤;建议结合实时监测技术和精准的检测手段对轮轨激励形成机理和发展过程展开深入研究,并可通过轮轨匹配型面优化、工艺设备和减振降噪装置智能化产品的研发、车辆/轨道系统结构优化和维护保养等措施来抑制或减缓轮轨激励的产生和发展。

     

  • 图  1  轮轨系统接触几何模型

    Figure  1.  Contact geometric model of wheel-rail system

    图  2  常见轮轨激励

    Figure  2.  Common wheel-rail excitations

    图  3  不同行车速度下钢轨波磨激振频率

    Figure  3.  Vibration frequencies of rail corrugation under different driving speeds

    图  4  钢轨波磨的发生机理

    Figure  4.  Occurrence mechanism of rail corrugation

    图  5  钢轨波磨发展机理

    Figure  5.  Development mechanism of rail corrugation

    图  6  车轮多边形阶数统计

    Figure  6.  Order statistics of wheel polygonal wear

    图  7  车辆/轨道耦合振动模型

    Figure  7.  Vehicle/track coupling vibration model

    图  8  轮轨激励形成与发展

    Figure  8.  Wheel-rail excitation formation and development

    图  9  车轮多边形磨耗对弹条疲劳寿命影响

    Figure  9.  Influence of polygon wear on fatigue life of elastic bar

    图  10  曲线半径对弹条疲劳寿命影响

    Figure  10.  Influence of curve radius on fatigue life of elastic bar

    表  1  轮轨激励形成机理与研究方法

    Table  1.   Formation mechanisms and research methods of wheel-rail excitation

    激励类型 研究方法 形成机理 文献来源
    钢轨波磨 数值仿真、现场观测、试验模拟 系统结构振动、材料损伤机制、轮轨自激振动、反馈振动理论 [11][15][21][31][32][35][39][41]
    接头焊缝 现场观测、试验模拟 残余应力理论 [44]
    车轮、钢轨擦伤、剥离 现场观测、试验模拟 局部高温引发材料损伤 [13]
    车轮/钢轨凹坑 现场观测、试验模拟 硬物压入引发材料损伤 [37][43]
    车轮多边形 数值仿真、现场观测、试验模拟 系统结构共振、轮轨自激振动、材料损伤 [12][16][18][19][23]~[25][32][33][40][42]
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-12-25
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-27
  • 刊出日期:  2021-08-27

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